Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STDs):
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, venereal diseases) are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States today. STDs are sometimes referred to as sexually transmitted infections, since these conditions involve the transmission of an infectious organism between sex partners. More than 20 different STDs have been identified, and about 19 million men and women are infected each year.
Depending on the disease, the infection can be spread through any type of sexual activity involving the sex organs, the anus, or the mouth; an infection can also be spread through contact with blood during sexual activity. STDs are infrequently transmitted by any other type of contact (blood, body fluids or tissue removed from an STD infected person and placed in contact with an uninfected person); however, people that share unsterilized needles markedly increase the chance to pass many diseases, including STD's (especially hepatitis B), to others. Some diseases are not considered to be officially an STD (for example, hepatitis types A, C, E) but are infrequently noted to be transferred during sexual activity. Consequently, some authors include them as STD's, others do not. Consequently, lists of STD's can vary, depending on whether the STD is usually transmitted by sexual contact or only infrequently transmitted.
►STDs affect men and women of all ages and backgrounds, including children. Many states require that Child Protective Services be notified if children are diagnosed with an STD.
►STDs have become more common in recent years, partly because people are becoming sexually active at a younger age, are having multiple partners, and do not use preventive methods to lessen their chance of acquiring an STD. Seniors show a marked increase in STDs in the last few years as many do not use condoms.
►People can pass STDs to sexual partners even if they themselves do not have any symptoms.
►Frequently, STDs can be present but cause no symptoms, especially in women (for example, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea). This can also occur in some men.
►Health problems and long-term consequences from STDs tend to be more severe for women than for men. Some STDs can cause pelvic infections such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which may cause a tubo-ovarian abscess. The abscess, in turn, may lead to scarring of the reproductive organs, which can result in an ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy outside the uterus), infertility or even death for a woman.
►Human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection), an STD, is a known cause of cancer of the cervix.
►Many STDs can be passed from a mother to her baby before, during, or immediately after birth.
►Because the method of becoming infected is similar with all STDs, a person often obtains more than one pathogenic organism at a time. For example, many people (about 50%) are infected at a single sexual contact with both gonorrhea and chlamydia.
Depending on the disease, STDs can be spread with any type of sexual activity. STDs are most often caused by viruses and bacteria. The following is a list of the most common STDs, their causes and other infections (see STDs with asterisk mark*) that may be transmitted on occasion by sexual activity, but are frequently not considered primarily to be an STD by many investigators:
STDs caused by bacteria:
►Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
►Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
►Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhea)
►Granuloma inguinale (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis)
►Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis)
►Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
STDs caused by viruses:
►Genital herpes (herpes simplex virus)
►Genital warts (human papillomavirus virus [HPV])
►Hepatitis B and D, and infrequently, A*,C*,E* (hepatitis viruses, types A-E)
►HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV virus])
►Molluscum contagiosum* (poxvirus)
STD caused by protozoan:
►Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
STD's caused by fungi:
►Jock itch (Tenia cruris)
►Yeast infections (Candida albicans)
STD's caused by parasites:
►Pubic lice or crabs (Pediculosis pubis)
►Scabies* Sarcoptes scabiei
A medical examination may be necessary if a person believes he or she may have an STD or if he or she may have been exposed to someone with an STD. Being seen by a doctor as soon as possible after exposure to an STD is important; these infections can easily spread to others and can have serious complications.
Go to a hospital's in these circumstances if:
►An STD problem worsens;
►A fever develops with other symptoms; or
►If it will be a couple of days before the individual can be evaluated by a doctor.
Some STDs can be diagnosed without any tests at all (for example, pubic lice). Other STDs require a blood test or a sample of any unusual fluid (such as an abnormal discharge from the vagina or the penis for gonorrhea or chlamydia) to be analyzed in a lab to help establish a diagnosis. Some tests are completed while a person waits; other tests require a few days before a person may obtain the results (for example, syphilis).
Treatment for STDs varies depending on the underlying cause of the disease. Treatment includes topical medication, oral medication, or both.
The treatment of an STD varies depending on the type of STD. Some STDs require a person to take antibiotic medication either by mouth or by injection; other STDs require a person to apply creams or special solutions on the skin. Often, reexamination by a doctor is necessary after the treatment to confirm that the STD is completely gone.
Some STDs, such as genital herpes and HIV (which leads to AIDS), cannot be cured, only controlled with medication.